Marijuana Cultivation/Producing Seeds Sooner or later every grower is going to want to produce marijuana seeds. Developing a new stable strain is beyond the scope of this discussion and requires San Francisco, CA, April 17, 2021 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) — Marijuana seeds fall into a murky legal area as they have a complicated relationship with the law. … Explore how to begin growing marijuana plants by comparing seeds versus cuttings, and learn how to acquire the seeds you need.
Marijuana Cultivation/Producing Seeds
Sooner or later every grower is going to want to produce marijuana seeds. Developing a new stable strain is beyond the scope of this discussion and requires the ability to grow hundreds or even thousands of breeding plants. However, just about any grower can manage to preserve some genetics by growing f2 seeds where they have crossed a male and female of the same strain, or can produce a simple cross which would be referred to as strain1xstrain2 for instance white widow crossed with ak-47 would be referred to as a WW x AK-47. You can produce some excellent seed and excellent marijuana this way.
To Feminise or not to Feminise Edit
There are numerous myths surrounding feminized seeds. Feminizing seeds are a bit more work than simply crossing two plants naturally. However it will save you a lot of time in the end. If you make fem seeds properly then there is no increased chance of hermaphrodites and all seeds will be female. This means no wasted time and effort growing males and it means that all your viable seeds produce useful plants. Since roughly half of normal seeds are male this effectively doubles the number of seeds you have.
Feminized seeds are bred to contain no male chromosomes, which will be able to produce the crop of resinous buds sought by most growers. For gardeners who require a quick and easy cultivation process, feminized seeds are the ideal choice. Some medicinal cannabis users may be deterred from growing their own supply because of the perceived difficulty of growing or of identifying the different genders and removing males early in the blooming period. Feminized seed-strains offer a simple solution to these issues, as there is no need to spend time in the first weeks of flowering checking for male plants.
Other times you will have no choice but to produce feminized seed because it will be a female plants genetics that you want to preserve and you won’t have any males. Perhaps you received these genetics via clone or didn’t keep males.
The new thing on the market for commercial Cannabis cultivation are auto-flowering feminized strains. By crossing of the cannabis ruderalis with Sativa and Indica strains many cultivators have created interesting hybrids which boast benefits from both sides of these families.
The first ‘auto-flowering cannabis seed’ which came on the market a few years ago was the Lowryder #1. This was a hybrid between a Cannabis ruderalis, a William’s Wonder and a Northern Lights #2. This strain was marketed by ‘The Joint Doctor’ and was honestly speaking not very impressive. The genetics of the ruderalis was still highly present which caused for a very low yield and little psychoactive effect. Not very attractive.
Auto-flowering cannabis and the easily distributed seed have opened a whole new market in the world of the online grow-shop, making it easy for home growers with shortage of space to grow rewarding cannabis plants in many different varieties. To grow plants indoors, a growing medium (e.g. soil or growing Potting soil, irrigation (water), fertilizer (nutrients), light and atmosphere need to be supplied to the plant.
Auto-flowers have been rising in popularity fast and there are now auto flower growers communities. These Web properties allow users to get information on how to grow these non photo-sensitive plants and what are the best practices when producing and germinating auto-flower seeds.
Selecting Suitable Parents Edit
There are a number of important characteristics when selecting parents. First are you making fem seeds? If you are then both parents will be female. This makes things easier. If not then the best you can do is select a male with characteristics in common with the females you hope to achieve from the seed.
Obviously potency, yield, and psychoactive effects are critical to the selection process. But some other important traits are size, odor, taste, resistance to mold and contaminants, early finishing and consistency.
Collecting and Storing Pollen Edit
In order to collect pollen you simply put down newspaper around the base of the plant. The pollen will fall from the plant onto the newspaper. You can then put this newspaper into a plastic bag and store it in the refrigerator or freeze it. Pollen will keep for a few months in the refrigerator and can be used on the next crop. Filtering the pollen through a silkscreen, drying, and freezing can extend viability for decades. At least one reader indicates success using pollen treated in this manner and stored at -30 c for 17 years. The chance of viability does decrease with time, even in the freezer, so the more fresh the pollen the better. Wrapping the pollen in a layer of aluminum foil and then a layer of plastic should help to protect it from freezer burn. Additionally, oxygen evacuation such as with a heavy gas like nitrogen or vacuum sealing should provide additional assurance of preservation.
Pollinating a Plant Edit
To pollinate a plant you can brush the pollen on a flower with a cotton swab or you can take the plastic bag, then wrap the flower inside it and shake, trapping the pollen inside for easier transportation. In this way you can selectively pollinate plants and even individual buds and branches.
Male Isolation Edit
A male plant or a plant with male flowers will pollinate your entire crop rendering it seedy. You probably don’t want THAT many seeds so how can you avoid it? Moving the male to another room might work but if that other room shares an air path via ducting or air conditioning then pollen may still find its way. One technique is to construct a male isolation chamber.
A male isolation chamber is simply a transparent container such as a large plastic storage tub turned on its side (available at your local megamart). Get a good sized PC fan that can be powered with pretty much any 12v wall adapter, by splicing together the + (yellow or red on fan, usually dotted on power adapter) and the – wires (black on fan, usually dotted power adapter) just twist with the like wire on the other device and then seal up the connection with electric tape. Then take a filtrate filter and cut out squares that fit the back of the pc fan so that the fan pulls (rather than pushes) air through the filter. Tape several layers of filter to the back of the pc fan so all the air goes through the filter. Now cut a large hole in the top of the plastic container and mount the pc fan over top of it so it pulls air out the box. You can use silicon sealant, latex, whatever you’ve got that gives a good tight seal.
This can be used as is, or you can cut a small intake in the bottom to improve airflow. Pollen won’t be able to escape the intake as long as the fan is moving but you might put filter paper over the intake to protect against fan failures. You can also use grommets to seal holes and run tubing into the chamber in order to water hydroponically from a reservoir outside the chamber. Otherwise you will need to remove the whole chamber to a safe location in order to water the plant or maintain a reservoir kept inside the chamber.
Making Feminized Seed Edit
To make feminized seed you must induce male flowers in a female plant. There is all sorts of information on the Internet about doing this with light stress (light interruptions during flowering) and other forms of stress. The best of the stress techniques is to simply keep the plant in the flowering stage well past ripeness and it will produce a flower (with seed).
Stress techniques will work but whatever genetic weakness caused the plants to produce a male flower under stress will be carried on to the seeds. This means the resulting seeds have a known tendency to produce hermaphrodites. Fortunately, environmental stress is not the only way to produce male flowers in a female plant.
The ideal way to produce feminized seed through hormonal alteration of the plant. By adding or inhibiting plant hormones you can cause the plant to produce male flowers. Because you did not select a plant that produces male flowers under stress there is no genetic predisposition to hermaphroditism in the seed vs plants bred between a male and female parent. There are actually a few ways to do this, the easiest I will list here.
Colloidal Silver (CS) Edit
This is the least expensive and most privacy conscious way to produce fem seed. CS has gotten a bad name because there is so much bad information spread around about its production and concentrations. It doesn’t help that there are those who believe in drinking low concentration colloidal silver for good health and there is information mixed in about how to produce that low concentration food grade product. Follow the information here and you will consistently produce effective CS and know how to apply it to get consistent results.
Simply construct a generator using a 9-12 v power supply (DC output, if it says AC then its no good) that can deliver at least 250ma (most wall wart type power supplies work, batteries are not recommended since their output varies over time). The supply will have a positive and negative lead, attach silver to each lead (contrary to Internet rumors, you aren’t drinking this so cheap 925(92.5%) Stirling silver is more than pure enough. You can expose the leads by clipping off the round plug at the end and splitting the wires, one will be positive and the other negative just like any old battery. Submerge both leads about 2-3 inches apart in a glass of distilled water (roughly 8 oz). Let this run for 8-24 hrs (until the liquid reads 12-15 ppm) and when you return the liquid will be a purple or silver hue and there may be some precipitate on the bottom.
This liquid is called colloidal silver. It is nothing more or less than fine particles of silver suspended in water so it is a completely natural solution. It is safe to handle without any special precautions. [ citation needed ] The silver inhibits female flowering hormones in cannabis and so the result is that male flowering hormone dominates and male flowers are produced.
To use the silver, spray on a plant or branch three days prior to switching the lights to 12/12 and continue spraying every three days until you see the first male flowers. Repeated applications after the first flowers appear may result in more male flowers and therefore more pollen. As the plant matures it will produce pollen that can be collected and used to pollinate any female flower (including flowers on the same plant).
Silver Thiosulfate (STS) Edit
Silver Thiosulfate is a substance that has similar principle, application and results of CS, but is more difficult to make. STS is more difficult to acquire, but it can still be obtained directly from a chemical supply company. STS is not an expensive or controlled substance.
Gibberellic Acid (GA3) Edit
This is probably the most popular way to produce feminized seed, but at the same time the least effective. GA3 is a plant hormone that also causes the plant to stretch uncontrollably. It can be purchased readily in powdered form, a quick search reveals numerous sources on e-bay for as little as $15. Simply add to water to reach 100ppm concentration and spray the plant daily for 10 days during flowering and male flowers will be produced.
Where to Buy Cannabis Seeds Online: 5 Best Seed Banks to Order Marijuana Seeds in the USA
This makes it difficult to find a reliable, high-quality seed bank in the United States, depending on an individual’s residing state.
The purpose of this review is to lay out the details of the top seed banks online.
How the Seed Banks Were Evaluated:
- Discussion with experts – Interviews and conversation with marijuana growers who order their seeds online.
- Website comparison – In-depth compare and contrast of online seed banks, evaluating delivery, strains, customer service, and more.
Top 5 Seed Banks Online
Below is a detailed list of the 5 best seed banks that will ship to the USA.
1. ILGM (I Love Growing Marijuana) – Best overall, most reliable
Robert Bergman is the founder of ILGM, which he started in 2012. He has more than 25 years of experience in the field and has learned many tips and tricks along the way.
Over time, his site has become one of the most trusted locations worldwide for Americans and Europeans buying marijuana seeds. There is an average delivery time of 10 days.
One thing that stands out about this site is the number of options and categories for all types of growers. On the main menu, consumers choose from beginner seeds, auto flowers, feminized seeds, medical seeds, mixed packs, grow kits, special deals, and seed-growing nutrients. All their seeds come with a germination guarantee and are authentic strains.
Also on offer are seeds for warm and cool climates, outdoor and indoor growing, high CBD, high yielding, high THC concentration, and more. Included in the top strains on offer are Blueberry Autoflower, Bergman’s Gold Leaf, Gorilla Glue, Girl Scout Cookies Extreme, and White Widow.
Also available are multiple purchase methods including credit and debit cards, bank deposits and transfers, and Bitcoin. Standard shipping is free, and tracked shipping costs $25.
and promotions every month
- Reputable company with a high rating
- Money-back guarantee, and no dud seeds
- Packaging is discreet
- Free shipping to the US and Europe
- Sells the best-known strains
- Large variety of products
- Growing guidebook and round-the-clock support
- Not available in certain states
- Tracking delivery costs $25
2. Crop King Seeds – Great variety of strains
This seed site is easy to use and offers loads of choices, from different seed types to germination guides. It is the perfect place to shop for beginner growers. Choose from high CBD strains, autoflower options, and more.
On the site, the company has a regulated review system with a structure worked into the database that does not allow for biased or paid reviewers to comment. This five-crown rating offers useful feedback from regular clients.
Use the filters when shopping to help narrow down which products are best. Regular shipping costs $10, express shipping is available at $30, and shipping is free on orders of over $300.
- Free shipping on orders over $300
- Germination rate of 80 percent
- Special ranking and feedback system
- Germination guide
- THC-CBD infographics
- Standard $10 delivery fee
- One to two-week shipping time
- Website is pretty basic, geared towards beginners only
3. Rocket Seeds – Best for discreet packaging and shipping
This Dutch company has been in business for over 20 years and sells a variety of seeds from feminized to outdoor, indoor, autoflowering, and more. They are known for their discreet shipping, where seeds are stored in random objects for confidentiality.
The website offers an entertaining quiz for consumers to find the best seeds for them. It includes details like weed preference and growing conditions. Not only is it a fun feature, but the quiz also helps beginners choose their seeds wisely.
Germination rate with MSNL is 90 percent, and all seeds are hand-checked by their Amsterdam-based staff. They stock all the major brands including Northern lights, Buddha, and White Widow. Each new order comes with a free surprise such as seeds and other products.
Delivery is free for bulk orders, while standard shipping is around $6.25. It normally takes around one to two weeks. Payment options include check, Bitcoin, bank wire, cash, debit and credit cards. Bitcoin users receive a 15 percent discount.
- Stealth shipping
- 15 percent discount for Bitcoin orders
- High reputation since 1999
- Fun quiz for choosing seeds
- Cannabis Cup and High Times Cup award winners
- Different shipping options available
- Free seeds with new orders
- Wide variety of products
- International shipping is very slow
- Only bulk deliveries get free shipping
- Charts for seed strains are confusing
4. Seedsman – Best for specialized strains
This site is geared to users with experience and is one of the most trusted companies that ships to the US. Each year, growers can submit their crops in photo form to the “Photo Cup” competition.
Seedsman offers an enormous amount of licensed breeders, all listed in alphabetical order. For those on the lookout for a specific big-name breeder, Seedsman probably has it. Popular strains available include Sour Diesel, Skunk, and White Widow, along with a great selection of autoflowering and feminized seeds.
The company stocks specific categories and many award-winning seeds, including products for growing at high-altitude and mold-resistant strains.
Each purchase comes with free seeds and loyalty points. Two discounts are on offer for Bitcoin users, including 15 percent off with every order and 25 percent for the first purchase. On the downside, the delivery charge and insurance fee cost $8.98 and $9.04, respectively.
- Special discounts for Bitcoin payments
- Loyalty points system
- Organized breeders’ list
- Every order includes free seeds
- Always plenty in stock
- Storage jars, hemp bags, and other accessories available
- Website is full of cheesy ads
- Steep delivery charges and insurance
- Reviews on the site seem biased
5. QCS (Quebec Cannabis Seeds) – Best for experienced growers
QCS has been supplying Canada and the rest of the world with great seeds for two decades, and their website has been active for 15 years. Choose from regular or special edition seeds, outdoor, indoor, feminized, autoflower, and much more.
The website allows for special strain requests that are not listed among the available products. QCS cares about their customers’ safety, too, offering discreet shipping.
Even though the company is Canadian, they accept payments in USD, so there is no need to worry about conversions.
- Discreet name used for credit card purchases
- 20 percent discount for Bitcoin customers
- Decades of experience
- Great variety of seeds available
- Credit card fee of 3.8 percent
- Minimum order of $70
- $10 standard shipping option only
- The website is basic with few additional details
Seed Banks FAQ
Q. How do Seed Banks Work in the USA?
A: Each state has their own laws regarding marijuana seeds, so most seed banks use an old souvenir law to get over the legal hurdles and do their business. As long as the seeds aren’t germinated they are free to mail them to you as a souvenir or for bird food/fish bait. Go to any major seed bank’s website such as ILGM and you will see a disclaimer page that announces this.
Q: Is It Safe to Buy Seeds Online?
A: Because of the many unreliable vendors selling low-quality products, it makes sense to wonder whether it’s safe to order seeds online. Fortunately, there’s minimal risk associated with ordering from online seed banks. Even customs laws shouldn’t be an issue. Some people are concerned that if their order is intercepted, they’ll end up on the law’s wrong side.
However, in most cases, the seeds won’t be detected. To guarantee this, most seed bank companies offer stealth shipping for customers worried about interception. It’s a discreet way of shipping orders where seeds are placed inside some ordinary objects like DVD cases before shipping; hence the package doesn’t raise suspicion.
Despite this, experts still advise customers against requesting expedited delivery or a shipping method that requires a signature. This helps avoid drawing attention to the package or being forced to sign for the delivery.
Individuals should also consider the payment method they’re using. Bitcoin is usually recommended as it’s encrypted and untraceable. Though, customers can choose to pay using credit cards since purchases are insured and protected.
ILGM is undoubtedly the best seed bank out there that offers US shipping. However, every site on this list is thoroughly vetted, high-reputed, and has a lot to offer.
How to Grow Marijuana from Seed
If you’re in a location where cannabis (another term for marijuana; short for the plant cannabis sativa) is illegal, growing it is probably illegal too. Bringing in seeds or cuttings to your location can very well be a felony, and reputable sellers won’t ship to you.
You can probably purchase and grow hemp seeds and plants, which have a negligible amount of THC, but these plants won’t produce the psychoactive effects of plants that contain higher levels of THC. Check with your seller to be certain you’re getting what you think you’re purchasing. If you buy seeds for CBD-only hemp plants by mistake, you can end up being very disappointed post-harvest.
How to acquire seeds or cuttings
You can usually find cannabis seeds for sale at most dispensaries in areas where growing cannabis for personal use is legal. You may also find growers who sell cuttings/clones. You can expect to pay $50 to $100 for a pack of ten seeds. When shopping for seeds or cuttings, read the labels and any other information the manufacturer provides on its website or in its catalog to make sure you’re getting the right seeds or cuttings (the strain) for the plants you want to grow.
One way to get your mitts on some seeds is to collect seeds when you find them in flowers you purchased, or get some from friends if they’re collecting.
- Feminized seeds: Nearly all seeds sold by reputable companies are feminized, but make sure they are. These seeds are specially treated to grow into female plants.
- Auto-flowering or photoperiod: Auto-flowering plants are easier, because they enter the flower stage after a certain number of weeks regardless of the light/dark cycle. If you’re a beginner, seriously consider going with auto-flowering plants.
- Genetic background: If seeds are from a well-established strain, such as O.G. Kush, Bubble Gum, or a cross-breed, the genetic background should be stated.
- Blend: The blend represents the percentage of the three species — sativa, indica, and ruderalis. All auto-flower strains contain some percentage of ruderalis, which is responsible for the auto-flowering nature of the plant.
- Yield indoors: The number of grams of bud per square meter of plant when grown indoors.
- Yield outdoors: The number of grams of bud per plant (after drying) when grown outdoors.
- Plant height indoors: Shorter than when grown outdoors.
- Plant height outdoors: Taller than when grown indoors.
- Time to harvest: Approximate number of weeks after germination the flower should be ready to harvest.
- Potency: Percentages of CBD and THC.
- Effect: The type of experience you can expect when consuming product from the plant.
Know the laws about buying cannabis
- In some European countries, laws prohibit growing cannabis, but seed is legal, which is quite confusing. You’re allowed to buy and eat cannabis seeds because they’re non-psychotropic, but you can’t buy them to grow cannabis. Other countries in Europe, such as Germany, have their own seed laws.
- In Canada, where cannabis is federally legal, seeds can be shipped across provincial lines.
- In the U.S., in some states in which cannabis is legal, you can purchase seeds from some dispensaries or other locations to grow plants as long as you keep them in the state. Other states may bar selling to non-licensed growers. Shipping or transporting seeds across state or international borders is illegal, although a few reputable online seed stores ship to individuals with success.
Cuttings are typically treated in a similar manner as seeds in legalized locations. They may be available from some dispensaries or outlets for pick up or delivery with a fee. They’re prohibited from crossing U.S. state lines or international borders. You can buy individual plants and mix and match strains. Prices vary and are often determined by plant size.
Buy cuttings (clones) only from a reputable source who understands proper back-crossing of strains for stability. Back-crossing involves pollinating a plant with one of its parent plants to promote sexual stability, so that when you have a female it won’t hermaphrodite into a male during flowering.
Both seeds and clones are often able to be purchased from commercial locations already in your state.
In the U.S., transporting any part of the cannabis plant over state lines is illegal. This applies to seeds and clones and, technically, even to tissue samples.
How to germinate cannabis seeds
Germinating seeds requires a dark environment that is around 70 degrees. There are many ways to germinate seeds (in soil, in a wet paper towel, in starter plugs) You can also sow them directly into soil in a garden or container, as long as the soil is light and fluffy, so the roots can easily grow down and the stalk can break through the soil. Plant the seeds about 1/4- to 1/2-inch deep and cover them loosely with soil.
Most importantly, seeds need a moist environment; they won’t germinate if they get too dry. You can use a heat mat to increase the success of germination in colder climates.
How to transplant marijuana plants
When transplanting any plant, whether it started from seed or a clone, handle it gently, being very careful not to damage the roots. Center the plant in the pot, and plant it deep enough to cover the root ball completely in soil. If the plant is root bound, you can gently tease the roots apart to encourage outward growth.
Pack your soil or other grow medium down around the roots well enough to support the plant while new roots grow, but not so tight that the soil restricts outward root growth. Water the soil around the roots.
About This Article
This article is from the book:
About the book authors:
Kim Ronkin Casey has been a communications professional for more than 20 years and recently took a year-long leap into the world of cannabis as the communications manager for one of the leading dispensaries in North America. She now consults for companies in the industry on internal and external communications. Joe Kraynak is a professional writer who has contributed to numerous For Dummies books.